Assessment Data

The assessment process for academic programs and courses involves collecting evidence of student learning. This evidence is crucial in determining the effectiveness of the program and the level of learning achieved by students. However, the type of evidence gathered will differ based on the program's learning outcomes and the opportunities available in the curriculum to collect data. There are two main types of assessment evidence methods: direct and indirect. Both types of evidence are valuable, as they provide complementary perspectives on student performance and mastery of the learning outcomes. To get a comprehensive understanding of student learning, it is advisable to collect both forms of evidence.

Direct evidence refers to information or data that is collected directly from students, such as essays, projects, test scores, or self-assessments. This type of evidence measures students' learning by examining their work or performance and provides insight into what they have learned and to what extent. Direct evidence can be evaluated using a scoring rubric, which provides a consistent and objective method for measuring student performance. The measures used should validly measure the specific learning outcomes in question and provide instructors with usable information. When using a scoring rubric across multiple courses and instructors in a program, it is important that faculty are trained or calibrated to interpret and use the rubric consistently.

Sources of Direct Evidence
  • Student work or performance scored using a rubric - this includes exams, quizzes, presentations, final project, capstone projects, senior thesis or dissertations, lab reports, term papers, sample of student homework assignments including case study analyses and any other written student work.
  • Comprehensive exams
  • Constructed-responses from exams or quizzes aligned to specific program learning outcomes.
  • Open-responses from exams or quizzes aligned to specific PLOs program learning outcomes.
  • Student Portfolios evaluated using a rubric
  • Competency exams or proficiency exams - these are exams that test students on specific skills or knowledge and can provide evidence of learning for those areas.
  • Observations of field work, service learning, clinical experiences – faculty/supervisor can observe students to evaluate their performance and provide evidence of learning.
  • Pass rates or scores on licensure, certification, or subject area tests
  • Student publications or conference presentations
  • Employer and internship supervisor ratings of students' performance
  • National or standardized exams
  • Ratings of student skills by their field experience supervisors or employers
  • Internship evaluations by supervisor
  • Pre-post assessments - these are assessments that measure student learning before and after a course or program and can provide evidence of progress and mastery.

When will my hold be removed after completing the evaluation?

Your hold will be removed within 24 hours after completing evaluations.

It has been over 24 hours and my hold hasn't been removed. Can you please remove the hold?

Please make sure all your course evaluations have been completed. If you have completed all evaluations and the hold still has not been removed within 24 hours, please contact the QAA team at

What should I do if I have technical issues while completing an evaluation?

If you are experiencing technical issues while completing the evaluation, please contact the QAA team at with your concerns.

Indirect Evidence

Indirect evidence of student learning refers to information about student learning that is obtained from sources other than direct assessments. This type of evidence provides insight into the factors affecting student learning, such as attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors related to the process. It can include self-reflection, perception surveys, and other methods that capture student perceptions of their own learning and the learning environment. Indirect evidence is valuable as it provides context for the direct measures of student performance or knowledge. While indirect measures, such as the number of hours spent studying or student satisfaction surveys, suggest that learning is taking place, they may not provide a clear picture of the exact extent or nature of the learning. By combining both indirect and direct evidence, educators can gain a comprehensive understanding of student learning and make informed decisions to improve teaching and learning.

Sources of Indirect Evidence
  • Course evaluations
  • Percent of class time spent in active learning
  • Number of student hours spent on service learning
  • Number of student hours spent on homework
  • Number of student hours spent at intellectual or cultural activities related to the course Grades that are not based on explicit criteria related to clear learning goals
  • Focus group interviews with students, faculty members, or employees
  • Registration or course enrollment information
  • Department or program review data
  • Job placement
  • Employer or alumni surveys
  • Student perception surveys
  • Proportion of upper-level courses compared to the same program at other institutions
  • Graduate school placement rates
  • Exit interviews